OF THE Cymry - Part 2

200BC-0

0AD-200

2-400

4-600

6-800

8-1000

10-12

12-14

14-16

16-18

18-20

2000 on

TIMELINE

                       

ROMAN BRITAIN

1. Following the Roman invasion of  the area of Britain  East of Wales the population of Cymru was distributed as follows: Silurians in Gwent and Glamorgan and Powys, Ordovicians in mid Wales, Deceangles in Clwyd, Venodotians (Latin for Gwynedd) in NW Wales and Demetians in Dyfed.

Caradoc

2.The Romans were  uneasy of the warlike Cymry on their western flank and envious of the gold and other minerals there.  Caradog spent three years preparing the strong, stubborn Silurians and Ordovicians to attempt to repel the Roman invasion of Cymru. Finally he and the Brythons met the Romans close to the mouth of the Severn.

 

Remains of Celtic Hill Fort

3. The Celts would have been fearsome with their ferocious looks and with the blaring of their massed carnyxes. Though disciplined, they were defeated by the superior numbers and technology of the Romans. Caradoc was eventually captured and sent to Rome. He received a full pardon from his dignified, eloquent defence.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Caradoc -'To you the situation is full of glory; to me full of shame......Ambitious Rome aims at conquering the world does the whole human race therefore have to bend to the yoke? For years I resisted successfully: I am now in your hands. If vengeance is your intention, proceed......... '

4. The successful Romans built the great legionary fortress of Caerleon-on-Usk. The Welsh continued to attack fiercely, causing heavy losses. Three succeeding generals failed to progress far into Wales before the fourth finally forced a way, this time towards Gwynedd in the North 

5.The focus of this thrust was the stronghold of the Druids; Anglesey - Ynys Mon; still called Mother of Wales. The druids were the guardians of the spirit and traditions of the Welsh; the inspiration for her freedom. It was probably this reason that the Romans turned the meadows of Anglesey into the killing fields that ran red with the druid's blood. Whilst the Roman's slew, the druids stood still, facing their murderers, unbowed as they died until even the most hardened soldier sickened at his deeds.

 

 

Statue of Bouddica in London

6.Immediately after the conquest of Anglesey Buddug/ Boudic(c)a/ Boadicea rose in rebellion north of London and the Romans were forced to go to quell this uprising. It took another generation before Wales was finally conquered and thereafter for good reason the Romans kept two of their three legions in Britain on the Welsh border with the third not too far away at York, 30 Roman forts were also built throughout Wales with as many as 1000 infantrymen in the largest ones.
7.The many good roads between the Roman forts had the effect of bringing the Welsh together in more of a community. The third century saw greater attacks from the Irish as well as the Picts and the Teutons from the east. In England the Saxons were living amongst the Brythons under Roman rule. In 212 these peoples like the Welsh became Roman citizens. More and more Saxons became Roman soldiers until they were in the vast majority leading to an eventual control of England east of a line running from York to the Isle of Wight when the Romans left in 383. In Wales and west of this line however the Welsh took over the defence of their lands.

8.The effect of three centuries of Roman rule on Wales was that the spiritual and intellectual life of the people, exalted by the druids was enhanced by Roman civility. It secured a  continuation of this education and learning forming a continuous line from Illtud until the 14th century. The Welsh maintained its political and legal systems and learned further order and it is at this time Christianity spread through the country. The Welsh maintained their language and the Romans gave their alphabet to complement it's complex verbal form.

When the Roman ruler Macsen Wledig/ Magnus Maximus left in 383 he left a united country capable of defending it's lands and culture.

Coin showing Macsen Wledig                     

The hill fort shown is Cefn Carnedd Hill Fort (Royal Commission on the Ancient and Historical Monuments of Wales) - one possible location of the battle. For more info on Caradoc and this battle log onto http://www.battlefieldanomalies.com/caradoc/index.htm

http://www.roman-emperors.org/madmax.htm  Interesting link for Magnus aximus/ Macsen Wledig